So you bought a 100 watt solar kit to charge to your battery thinking that it will deliver 100 watts. Well, I'm sorry to have to tell you it will probably only produce about 70 watts of usable power. Were you conned? No, you just have to understand 3 important facts about solar cells.
The solar panel
must be generating power at its maximum power point (MPP). Most solar panels will be operated away from their MPP depending on the set-up. The maximum power is only generated when the load resistance is at the correct level to obtain the correct voltage and current flow. The load is the technical term for everything that uses the power generated by the solar panel. In an ideal system only the device that you want to power is the load, for instance a battery you want to recharge, but in practice all the components that make up the system, such as connections and wiring and voltage regulation devices, use some of that power and contribute to the total load on the system. When the system load moves away from the optimum load then the PV module's voltage and amps will move away from the MPP and the solar module becomes less efficient, thus produces less power.
The solar panel must be fully bathed in direct sunlight. Most of the time the solar panel will not be facing directly into the sun, there may be clouds or shadows obscuring the sun and there may be debris on the solar panel obstructing the sunlight. In a 100% efficient solar module the sun falling on an area of one square meter of solar panel would produce 1000 watts ( 1 Kw) but the average PV panel is about 15% efficient and produces about 150 watts (15% of 1000) per square meter of area.
The solar cells temperatures must not exceed 25A锟紺. Excessive heat has the greatest effect on the voltage generated by the cells. Don't be fooled by the ambient temperature, because when the air is about 10A锟紺, the solar cell will be at about 40A锟紺. Solar cells don't like heat, when the temperature rises then the cell produces less voltage. At 40A锟紺 a cell is producing 10% less voltage than at 25A锟紺 so on a typical summer day the cell may be at 65A锟紺. and producing 80 watts instead of 100 watts.
Conclusion. All of these factors add to the total energy loss of the solar generating system. Use thicker rather than thin wire to reduce power losses and overheating. MPPT solar controllers will get the most power out of your solar panel. Deep cell batteries are better than car batteries for storing and using electricity.
solar panel is an inevitable and critical part of being a manufacturer, and it's more complicated than just manufacturing products and serving customers.
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